Sunday, May 08, 2011

Last Supper, Eucharist, And The Didache

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Most Christians are familiar with the traditional words for the Eucharist or the Lord's Table/Lord's Supper as stated by Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 (which reflects some editing or development or standardization of the varying accounts of the Last Supper from the Gospels - see Jesus' actions and "words of institution" in Matthew 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, and Luke 22:14-20, compared with each other and with Paul's "tradition" in 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 below):
23 Ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὃ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον 24 καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ εἶπεν· Τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 25 ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων· Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ αἵματι· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 26 ὁσάκις γὰρ ἐὰν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον καὶ τὸ ποτήριον πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε, ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ. (The Greek New Testament: SBL Edition)

23 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 25 In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. (The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version. 1989. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.)
While many non-sacramental Protestant churches may simply read the above or the Gospel accounts for communion, liturgical and sacramental churches are more elaborate in what they say (and do). Here is the Eucharistic portion of The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom as used by the Eastern Orthodox Church:
Priest (in a low voice): Together with these blessed powers, merciful Master, we also proclaim and say: You are holy and most holy, You and Your only-begotten Son and Your Holy Spirit. You are holy and most holy, and sublime is Your glory. You so loved Your world that You gave Your only begotten Son so that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life. He came and fulfilled the divine plan for us. On the night when He was betrayed, or rather when He gave Himself up for the life of the world, He took bread in His holy, pure, and blameless hands, gave thanks, blessed, sanctified, broke, and gave it to His holy disciples and apostles saying:

Priest: Take, eat, this is my Body which is broken for you for the forgiveness of sins.

People: Amen.

Priest (in a low voice): Likewise, after supper, He took the cup, saying:

Priest: Drink of it all of you; this is my Blood of the new Covenant which is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins.

People: Amen.

Priest (in a low voice): Remembering, therefore, this command of the Savior, and all that came to pass for our sake, the cross, the tomb, the resurrection on the third day, the ascension into heaven, the enthronement at the right hand of the Father, and the second, glorious coming.

Priest: We offer to You these gifts from Your own gifts in all and for all.

People: We praise You, we bless You, we give thanks to You, and we pray to You, Lord our God.

Priest (in a low voice): Once again we offer to You this spiritual worship without the shedding of blood, and we ask, pray, and entreat You: send down Your Holy Spirit upon us and upon these gifts here presented.

Priest: And make this bread the precious Body of Your Christ.

Deacon: Amen.

Priest: And that which is in this cup the precious Blood of Your Christ.

Deacon: Amen.

Priest: Changing them by Your Holy Spirit.

Deacon: Amen. Amen. Amen.

Priest: So that they may be to those who partake of them for vigilance of soul, forgiveness of sins, communion of Your Holy Spirit, fulfillment of the kingdom of heaven, confidence before You, and not in judgment or condemnation.
But there was apparently another Eucharistic tradition in the church, preserved for us in The Didache ("The Teaching of [the Lord to the Gentiles by] the Twelve Apostles" - Διδαχὴ κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῖς ἔθνεσιν) and possibly dating from as early as Paul's Epistle.

(Note: Information on The Didache and its history and importance can be found here: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/didache.html.)

The text below is from Holmes, M. W. (1999). The Apostolic Fathers: Greek texts and English translations (Updated ed.) (258–262). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.

9.1 Περὶ δὲ τῆς εὐχαριστίας, οὕτω εὐχαριστήσατε.
(2) πρῶτον περὶ τοῦ ποτηρίου· Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, πάτερ ἡμῶν,ὑπὲρ τῆς ἁγίας ἀμπέλου Δαυὶδ τοῦ παιδός σου, ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖνδιὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(3) περὶ δὲ τοῦ κλάσματος· Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, πάτερ ἡμῶν, ὑπὲρ τῆς ζωῆς καὶ γνώσεως, ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(4) Ὥσπερ ἦν τοῦτο [τὸ] κλάσμα διεσκορπισμένον ἐπάνω τῶν ὀρέων καὶ συναχθὲν ἐγένετο ἕν, οὕτω συναχθήτω σου ἡ ἐκκλησίαἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς εἰς τὴν σὴν βασιλείαν· ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ δύναμις διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ18 εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(5) μηδεὶς δὲ φαγέτω μηδὲ πιέτω ἀπὸ τῆς εὐχαριστίας ὑμῶν, ἀλλʼ οἱ βαπτισθέντες εἰς ὄνομα κυρίου, καὶ γὰρ περὶ τούτου εἴρηκεν ὁ κύριος· Μὴ δῶτε τὸ ἅγιον τοῖς κυσί.

10.1 Μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἐμπλησθῆναι οὕτως εὐχαριστήσατε·
(2) Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, πάτερ ἅγιε, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀνόματός σου οὗ κατεσκήνωσας ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν, καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς γνώσεως καὶ πίστεως καὶ ἀθανασίας ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(3) Σύ, δέσποτα παντοκράτορ, ἔκτισας τὰ πάντα ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόματός σου, τροφήν τε καὶ ποτὸν ἔδωκας τοῖς ἀνθρώποις19 εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν, ἵνα σοι εὐχαριστήσωσιν·20 ἡμῖν δὲ ἐχαρίσω πνευματικὴν τροφὴν καὶ ποτὸν, καὶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον δια21 τοῦ παιδός σου.
(4) Πρὸ πάντων εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι ὅτι δυνατὸς εἶ σύ· σοὶ22 ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(5) Μνήσθητι, κύριε, τῆς ἐκκλησίας σου, τοῦ ῥύσασθαι αὐτὴν ἀπὸ παντὸς πονηροῦ καὶ τελειῶσαι αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ ἀγάπῃ σου, καὶ σύναξον αὐτὴν ἀπὸ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων, τὴν ἁγιασθεῖσαν,23 εἰς τὴν σὴν βασιλείαν, ἣν ἡτοίμασας αὐτῇ· ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(6) Ἐλθέτω χάρις καὶ παρελθέτω ὁ κόσμος οὗτος. Ὡσαννὰ τῷ θεῷ24 Δαυίδ. Εἴ τις ἅγιός ἐστιν, ἐρχέσθω· εἴ τις οὐκ ἐστί, μετανοείτω· Μαραναθά. Ἀμήν.
(7) Τοῖς δὲ προφήταις ἐπιτρέπετε εὐχαριστεῖν ὅσα θέλουσιν.25

The following section may also relate to the Eucharist:

14.1 Κατὰ κυριακὴν32 δὲ κυρίου συναχθέντες κλάσατε ἄρτον καὶ εὐχαριστήσατε, προεξομολογησάμενοι τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν, ὅπως καθαρὰ ἡ θυσία ὑμῶν33 ᾖ.
(2) πᾶς δὲ ἔχων τὴν ἀμφιβολίαν μετὰ τοῦ ἑταίρου αὐτοῦ μὴ συνελθέτω ὑμῖν, ἕως οὗ διαλλαγῶσιν, ἵνα μὴ κοινωθῇ ἡ θυσία ὑμῶν.
(3) αὕτη γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ῥηθεῖσα ὑπὸ κυρίου· Ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ καὶ χρόνῳ προσφέρειν μοι θυσίαν καθαράν· ὅτι βασιλεὺς μέγας εἰμί, λέγει κύριος, καὶ τὸ ὄνομά μου θαυμαστὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσι.
9. Now concerning the Eucharist,29 give thanks as follows.
(2) First, concerning the cup: We give you thanks, our Father, for the holy vine of David your servant, which you have made known to us through Jesus, your servant (ὁ or ἡ παῖς, παιδός - see entry from BDAG Lexicon below); to you be the glory forever.
(3) And concerning the broken bread (τό κλάσμα, ατος - fragment, piece, crumb. In the New Testament only at Matthew 14:20, 15:37; Mark 6:43, 8:8,19-20; Luke 9:17; John 6:12-13, all having to do with the feeding of the 5,000 and the 4,000): We give you thanks, our Father, for the life and knowledge which you have made known to us through Jesus, your servant; to you be the glory forever.
(4) Just as this broken bread was scattered upon the mountains and then was gathered together and became one, so may your church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into your kingdom; for yours is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ forever.
(5) But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist except those who have been baptized into the name of the Lord, for the Lord has also spoken concerning this: “Do not give what is holy to dogs.”30

10. And after you have had enough, give thanks as follows:
(2) We give you thanks, Holy Father, for your holy name which you have caused to dwell in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality which you have made known to us through Jesus your servant; to you be the glory forever.
(3) You, almighty Master, created all things for your name’s sake, and gave food and drink to men to enjoy, that they might give you thanks; but to us you have graciously given spiritual food and drink, and eternal life through your servant.31
(4) Above all we give thanks because you are mighty; to you be the glory forever.
(5) Remember your church, Lord, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in your love; and gather it, the one that has been sanctified, from the four winds into your kingdom, which you have prepared for it; for yours is the power and the glory forever.
(6) May grace come, and may this world pass away. Hosanna to the God of David. If anyone is holy, let him come; if anyone is not, let him repent.32 Maranatha!33 Amen.
(7) But permit the prophets to give thanks however they wish.34

The following section may also relate to the Eucharist:

14. On the Lord’s own day gather together and break bread and give thanks, having first confessed your sins so that your sacrifice may be pure.
(2) But let no one who has a quarrel with a companion join you until they have been reconciled, so that your sacrifice may not be defiled.
(3) For this is the sacrifice concerning which the Lord said, “In every place and time offer me a pure sacrifice, for I am a great king, says the Lord, and my name is marvelous among the nations.”39

[Encloses emendations of the Greek text.

18 δια …Χριστου C Georg] - ApCon

19 ανθρωποις C] υιοις των ανθρωπων Co

20 ινα …ευχαριστησωσιν C] - Co

21 δια C] + Ιησου Co

22 συ• σοι em Harnack] συ C; σοι Co Georg

23 την αγιασθεισαν C Georg] - Co

24 θεῳ C Georg] οικῳ Co; υιῳ ApCon 

25 θελουσιν C Georg] + περι δε του λογου (- τ. λ. ApCon) του μυρου ουτως ευχαριστησατε λεγοντες (- ApCon)• ευχαριστουμεν σοι πατερ (θεε δημιουργε των ολων και ApCon) υπερ (+ της ευωδιας ApCon) του μυρου (+ και υπερ του αθανατου αιωνος ApCon), ου εγνωρισας ημιν δια Ιησου του παιδος σου• σοι (οτι σου εστιν ApCon) η δοξα (+ και η δυναμις ApCon) εις τους αιωνας• αμην Co ApCon

32 κατα κυριακην C] καθʼ ημεραν Georg (ApCon?)

33 υμων Georg ApCon] ημων C

29 Eucharist: i.e., “the thanksgiving.” The word eucharistia, which in the New Testament is used in the general sense of “thankfulness” or “thanksgiving” (cf., e.g., Acts 24:3; Phil. 4:6; 1 Thess. 3:9), soon became a technical term for the primary act of “giving thanks,” namely the Lord’s Supper (cf. Ign. Smyrn 6.2; Justin Martyr, 1 Apology 65). Lightfoot, apparently in an effort to capture both the general and technical senses of the term, translates the word as “eucharistic thanksgiving.”

30 Matt. 7:6.

31 servant: so C; Co adds Jesus.

32 repent: or possibly be converted.

33 I.e., “Our Lord, come!”; cf. 1 Cor. 16:22.

34 Both Co and ApCon add here a section, not found in C or Georg, which reads as follows: And concerning the ointment, give thanks as follows: We give you thanks, Father, for the fragrant ointment which you have made known to us through Jesus your servant; to you be the glory forever. Amen. See Kraft, Barnabas and the Didache, 167–69, for a discussion.

39 Mal. 1:11, 14.


παῖς, παιδός, ὁ or (Hom. et al.) child.
...
[3] one who is committed in total obedience to another, slave, servant
...
ⓑ of special relationships
...
γ. of Christ in his relation to God. In this connection it has the mng. servant because of the identification of the ‘servant of God’ of certain OT pass. w. the Messiah (Is 52:13 et al.; BJanowski/PStuhlmacher, edd., Der Leidende Gottesknecht ’96 [lit.]; DBS XII 1000–1016) Mt 12:18 (cp. Is 42:1); B 6:1; B 9:2 (on the last two cp. Is 50:10). So prob. also D 9:2b (because of the immediate proximity of Δαυὶδ ὁ παῖς σου 9:2a); 9:3; 10:2f.—In other places (cp. Ath. 10, 2; 12, 2 al.; Iren. 3, 12, 5 [Harv. II 58, 8]) the mng. son is certainly to be preferred (παῖς was so understood in the Gk. world, when it expressed a relationship to a divinity: Il. 2, 205 Κρόνου παῖς; Sappho 1, 2 Diehl; Alcaeus 1; Bacchylides 17, 70 Minos, a παῖς of Zeus; Hermocles [IV/III B.C.] p. 174 Coll. Alex.=Athen. 6, 63, 253d: Demetrius Poliorcetes as π. Ποσειδῶνος θεοῦ; Diod S 17, 51, 1 the god Ammon has his prophet address Alexander thus χαῖρε, ὦ παῖ; what follows makes it clear that procreation is meant; Plut., Mor. 180d; Maximus Tyr. 14, 1d; Paus. 2, 10, 3 Ἄρατος Ἀσκληπιοῦ π.; Diogenes, Ep. 36, 1; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 7, 24 p. 279, 4; Porphyr., Vi. Plot. 23; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 2, 10; IG IV2, 128, 50 [280 B.C.] and oft.; Sb 8314, 9 Hermes conducts the dead man to the Elysian fields ἅμα παισὶ θεῶν. S. above bα the παῖδες θεῶν. Cp. also Herm. Wr. 13, 2 ὁ γεννώμενος θεοῦ θεὸς παῖς; 13, 4; 14; Rtzst., Poim. 223f.—Celsus 7, 9) παῖς αὐτοῦ ὁ μονογενὴς Ἰησοῦς Χρ. MPol 20:2. God as ὁ τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ κ. εὐλογητοῦ παιδὸς Ἰησοῦ Χρ. πατήρ 14:1. Corresp. Christ as God’s ἀγαπητὸς παῖς 14:3; Dg 8:11. The same is true of the other pass. in Dg: 8:9; 9:1.—In the case of the rest of the pass. it is hardly poss. to decide which mng. is better: Ac 3:13, 26; 4:27, 30 (unless the παῖς σου your servant of 4:25 should demand the same transl. for the other pass. as well; JMénard, CBQ 19, ’57, 83–92 [Acts]); 1 Cl 59:2–4 (in wordplay w. παιδεύω; but here the word ἠγαπημένος repeated in vss. 2 and 3 [cp. the magical pap of c. 300 A.D. in TSchermann, TU 34, 2b, 1909, 3: Christ as ἠγαπημένος παῖς] could suggest the transl. son). - Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed.) (750–751). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Jesus' actions and "words of institution" in Matthew 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, and Luke 22:14-20, compared with each other and with Paul's "tradition" in 1 Corinthians 11:23-26

blue = Common to Matthew, Mark, Luke
red = Common to Matthew, Mark
purple = Common to Matthew, Luke (ἀπʼ/ἀπὸ only)
green = Common to Mark, Luke (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς and θεοῦ only)
Underlining shows that Paul's words are largely taken from the longer form (see the Textual Commentary notes below) of Luke's account. (Or did Luke borrow from Paul, or did both borrow from the same tradition?):

Matthew 26:
26 Ἐσθιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν λαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἄρτον καὶ εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ δοὺς τοῖς μαθηταῖς εἶπεν· Λάβετε φάγετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου. 27 καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων· Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες, 28 τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν· 29 λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπʼ ἄρτι ἐκ τούτου τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ὅταν αὐτὸ πίνω μεθʼ ὑμῶν καινὸν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ πατρός μου.
Mark 14:
22 Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν· Λάβετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου. 23 καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες. 24 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶν. 25 ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐκέτι οὐ μὴ πίω ἐκ τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ὅταν αὐτὸ πίνω καινὸν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ.
Luke 22:
14 Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡ ὥρα, ἀνέπεσεν καὶ οἱ ἀπόστολοι σὺν αὐτῷ. 15 καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς· Ἐπιθυμίᾳ ἐπεθύμησα τοῦτο τὸ πάσχα φαγεῖν μεθʼ ὑμῶν πρὸ τοῦ με παθεῖν· 16 λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐ μὴ φάγω αὐτὸ ἕως ὅτου πληρωθῇ ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ. 17 καὶ δεξάμενος ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν· Λάβετε τοῦτο καὶ διαμερίσατε εἰς ἑαυτούς· 18 λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως οὗ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἔλθῃ. 19 καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων· Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου [τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 20 καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων· Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον].
1 Corinthians 11:
23 Ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὃ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον 24 καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ εἶπεν· Τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 25 ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων· Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ αἵματι· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 26 ὁσάκις γὰρ ἐὰν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον καὶ τὸ ποτήριον πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε, ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ.

Matthew 26:
26 while-eating but them having-taken the Jesus a-loaf and having-blessed he-broke and having-given to-the disciples he-said: Take eat, this is the body my. 27 and having-taken a-cup and having-thanked he-gave to-them saying: Drink out-of it all, 28 this for is the blood my of-the covenant the concerning many poured-out unto forgiveness of-sins. 29 I-say but to-you, no not I-will-drink from this-time out-of this of-the yield of-the vine until the day that whenever it I-drink with you new in the kingdom of-the father my.

Mark 14:
22 And while-eating them having-taken a-loaf having-blessed he-broke and he-gave to-them and he-said: Take, this is the body my. 23 And having-taken a-cup having-thanked he-gave to-them, and they-drank out-of it all. 24 And he-said to-them: This is the blood my of-the covenant the poured-out for many. 25 Truly I-say to-you that no-longer no not I-will-drink out-of of-the yield of-the vine until the day that whenever it I-drink new in the kingdom of-the God.

Luke 22:
14 And when happened the hour, he-reclined and the apostles with him. 15 and he-said to them: With-desire I-desired this the Passover to-eat with you before the me to-suffer. 16 I-say for to-you that no not I-will-eat it until whatever it-should-be-fulfilled in the kingdom of-the God. 17 And having-welcomed a-cup having-thanked he-said: Take this and divide unto yourselves; 18 I-say for to-you, no not I-will-drink from the now from of-the yield of-the vine until where the kingdom of-the God should-come. 19 And having-taken a-loaf having-thanked he-broke and he-gave to-them saying: This is the body my [the for you being-given; this do unto the mine remembrance. 20 And the cup likewise after the to-sup, saying: This the cup the new covenant in the blood my, the for you poured-out].
1 Corinthians 11:
23 I for received from the Lord, which and I-delivered-up to-you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in-which he-was-being-delivered-up took a-loaf 24 and having-thanked he-broke and he-said: This my is the body the for you; this do unto the mine remembrance. 25 Likewise and the cup after the to-sup, saying: This the cup the new covenant is in the mine blood; this do, as-often-as should you-should-drink, unto the mine remembrance. 26 As-often-as for should you-should-eat the loaf this and the cup you-should-drink, the death of-the Lord you-proclaim, until-the-time where he-should-come.

Textual Commentary on Luke 22:17–20 {B}*

The Lukan account of the Last Supper has been transmitted in two principal forms: (1) the longer, or traditional, text of cup-bread-cup is read by all Greek manuscripts except D and by most of the ancient versions and Fathers; (2) the shorter, or Western, text (read by D ita, d, ff2, i, l) omits verses 19b and 20 (τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν … ἐκχυννόμενον), thereby presenting the sequence of cup-bread.1 Four intermediate forms of text, which appear to be compromises between the two principal forms, are the following: (a) two Old Latin manuscripts (itb, e) modify the shorter text by placing ver. 19a before ver. 17, thus securing the customary order of bread-cup; (b) the Curetonian Syriac reads the same, but is enlarged with the wording of 1 Cor 11:24 added to ver. 19a; (c) the Sinaitic Syriac is still further expanded, chiefly by the insertion of “after they had supped” at the beginning of ver. 17 and “this is my blood, the new covenant” (ver. 20b) between verses 17 and 18; and (d) the Peshitta Syriac lacks (perhaps due to homoeoteleuton) verses 17 and 18, as do also l32, two Sahidic manuscripts, and one Bohairic manuscript. For convenience of comparison the six forms of the text are set forth in parallel columns on p. 149.

It is obvious that the chief problem is concerned with the merits of the two principal forms of text, since each of the others can be accounted for more or less satisfactorily as modifications of either the shorter or the longer form.

Majority Text

17. καὶ δεξάμενος ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν, Λάβετε τοῦτο καὶ διαμερίσατε εἰς ἑαυτούς.

18. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν, [ὅτι] οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως οὗ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἔλθῃ.

19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν.

20. καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων, Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον.
D ita, d, ff2, i, l

17. καὶ δεξάμενος τὸ ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν, Λάβετε τοῦτο, διαμερίσατε ἑαυτοῖς.

18. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως οὗ ἔλθῃ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.

19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου.
itb, e

19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου.

17. καὶ δεξάμενος τὸ ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν, Λάβετε (τοῦτο. om. e) διαμερίσατε εἰς ἑαυτούς.

18. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν (ὅτι, om. e) ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος (+ τούτου b) τῆς ἀμπέλου (+ ταύτης b) ἕως οὗ ἔλθῃ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.
syrc

19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἔλεγεν, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν.

17. καὶ δεξάμενος τὸ ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν, Λάβετε τοῦτο, διαμερίσατε εἰς ἑαυτούς.

18. λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τούτου τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως οὗ ἔλθῃ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.
syrs

19. καὶ λαβῶν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἔλεγεν, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν.

20a. καὶ μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι.

17. δεξάμενος τὸ ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν, Λάβετε τοῦτο, διαμερίσατε εἰς ἑαυτούς.

20b. τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου ἡ διαθήκη ἡ καινή.

18. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τούτου ἕως οὗ ἔλθῃ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.
syrp

19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἔλεγεν, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν.

20. καὶ ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων, Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον.

Table of six forms of the text of Lk 22:17–20, reproduced (with a few minor modifications) from the chapter, “The Textual Data,” by Sir Frederick G. Kenyon and S. C. E. Legg, in The Ministry and the Sacraments, ed. by Roderic Dunkerley (London, 1937), pp. 284 f. By “Majority Text” at the head of the first column is meant the consensus of P75 א A B C K L Tvid W X Δ ΘΠ Ψ 063 f 1 f 13 apparently all minuscules itc, q, r1 vg syrpal copsa, bo arm geo. It will be understood that the Greek form given to the versions is in some details uncertain.

Considerations in favor of the originality of the longer text include the following: (a) The external evidence supporting the shorter reading represents only part of the Western type of text, whereas the other representatives of the Western text join with witnesses belonging to all the other ancient text-types in support of the longer reading. (b) It is easier to suppose that the Bezan editor, puzzled by the sequence of cup-bread-cup, eliminated the second mention of the cup without being concerned about the inverted order of institution thus produced, than that the editor of the longer version, to rectify the inverted order, brought in from Paul the second mention of the cup, while letting the first mention stand. (c) The rise of the shorter version can be accounted for in terms of the theory of disciplina arcana, i. e. in order to protect the Eucharist from profanation, one or more copies of the Gospel according to Luke, prepared for circulation among non-Christian readers, omitted the sacramental formula after the beginning words.

Considerations in favor of the originality of the shorter text include the following: (a) Generally in New Testament textual criticism the shorter reading is to be preferred. (b) Since the words in verses 19b and 20 are suspiciously similar to Paul’s words in 1 Cor 11:24b–25, it appears that the latter passage was the source of their interpolation into the longer text. (c) Verses 19b–20 contain several linguistic features that are non-Lukan.

The weight of these considerations was estimated differently by different members of the Committee. A minority preferred the shorter text as a Western non-interpolation (see the Note following 24.53). The majority, on the other hand, impressed by the overwhelming preponderance of external evidence supporting the longer form, explained the origin of the shorter form as due to some scribal accident or misunderstanding.2 The similarity between verses 19b–20 and 1 Cor 11:24b–25 arises from the familiarity of the evangelist with the liturgical practice among Pauline churches, a circumstance that accounts also for the presence of non-Lukan expressions in verses 19b–20.


* The letter {B} indicates that the text is almost certain.

1 The same sequence also occurs in the Didache, ix, 2–3; cf. also 1 Cor 10:16.

2 Kenyon and Legg, who prefer the longer form of text, explain the origin of the other readings as follows: “The whole difficulty arose, in our opinion, from a misunderstanding of the longer version. The first cup given to the disciples to divide among themselves should be taken in connection with the previous verse (ver. 16) as referring to the eating of the Passover with them at the reunion in Heaven. This is followed by the institution of the Sacrament, to be repeated continually on earth in memory of Him. This gives an intelligible meaning to the whole, while at the same time it is easy to see that it would occasion difficulties of interpretation, which would give rise to the attempts at revision that appear in various forms of the shorter version” (Sir Frederick G. Kenyon and S. C. E. Legg in The Ministry and the Sacraments, ed. by Roderic Dunkerley [London, 1937], pp. 285 f.).

Metzger, B. M., & United Bible Societies. (1994). A textual commentary on the Greek New Testament, second edition a companion volume to the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament (4th rev. ed.). London; New York: United Bible Societies.

10 comments:

  1. Thanks for this.

    What intrigues me about the instructions and the set prayers for the Eucharist in the Didache is that it is ALL about thanksgiving but Jesus' sacrifice on the Cross isn't even mentioned.

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  2. mmowczko:

    Some of the things I see in the Didache:

    Cup first, then bread.

    Bread called klasma instead of artos, thus possibly linking it to the feeding of the 4,000 and 5,000 rather than to the Passover or the Last Supper. Jesus queried the disciples about whether they understood the meaning of the number of baskets of fragments they had gathered, and they apparently didn't. The Didache relates it to the scattered church.

    A "low" Christology? Jesus is repeatedly called God's servant, not God's Son, though He is also called "Lord." David is mentioned at both 9:2 and 10:6 - i.e., the beginning and the end of the Eucharistic prayers.

    No mention of the bread and wine changing into anything, or being Jesus' body and blood. It is called spiritual food and drink, though.

    We don't know if Chapter 14 is Eucharistic, so we don't know what the language there of "sacrifice" refers to:
    - Were the bread and wine considered to be the sacrifice?
    - If so, were they regarded as the offering of the body and blood of Christ, as the Catholic and Orthodox Churches regard them to be?
    - If not, was the sacrifice that of the communicants offering themselves to God (Romans 12:1)?

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  3. I was thinking about chapter 9,not 14.

    The Greek NT uses the noun "klasma" and verb "klaw" many times in reference to a fragment or piece of bread broken from a larger loaf: e.g. John 6:12-13; Acts 2:42; 20:7; 1 Cor 10:16;11:24.

    Often these verses are clearly in the context of the Eucharist/communion. At other times the breaking of bread may simply refer to sharing a meal. And then of course we have the feeding of the 5000 and 4000 where cognates of the word "klasma" and klaw" are also used.

    I think the "breaking of bread" was just an idiomatic way of referring to sharing and eating bread(or even a meal)which did include tearing pieces of bread from a larger loaf.

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  4. Check out Hans Lietzmann, Mass and Lord's Supper; and Oscar Cullmann, The Meaning of the Lord's Supper in Primitive Christianity for discussions of two types of Lord's Supper liturgy in early Christianity -- one with emphasis on the death of Christ, and one with emphasis on the fellowship of the believers. They have differing theories as to the reasons for the differences.

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  5. I have E-mailed you a number of documents related to Lord's Supper research. I hope you received them ok. Drop me an E-mail back if you did. mwatts23@nc.rr.com.

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  6. 1964 Bulldog: I have not yet received them, nor did they go to my "Spam" folder. Perhaps you can resend them.

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  7. Resent them by E-mail this date. Stay in touch. Hope you find them useful. I very much appreciate, and am very much in agreement with nearly all of your comments on the Lord's Supper. Keep up the good work.

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  8. 1964 Bulldog: I'm still not getting your emails, nor are they going to my spam folder. My email address from this site is correct; I wonder what the problem is? Are you able to send emails to other people at Yahoo! email accounts?

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